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reported_speech

Reported speech

Reported speech - косвенная речь (direct speech - прямая речь).

Правила преобразования direct to reported

Примеры согласования времен:

Все были уверены, что Борис хорошо сдаст экзамены.Everybody was sure that Boris would pass the exams very well.

При использовании косвенной речи, мы обычно говорим в прошедшем времени, например am/is → was. are → were, have/has → had, will → would, can → could, know - > knew etc.

todaythat day (тот день) или оставить today
tonightthat night
nowthan (затем) или оставить now
yesterdaythe day before
tomorrowthe next day
… ago… before
this (morning)that …
these …those …
here (здесь)there (там)
last yearthe year before (годом ранее)
last monththe month before (месяцем ранее)
last …the … before
next yearthe following year (в следующем году)
next …the following …
musthad to
Таблица преобразования прямой речи в косвенную
Прямая речь Косвенная речь
Present Simple “I am tired.” “I love you.”Past Simple She said she was tired. He said he loved her.
“We don’t like rock music.”They said they didn’t like rock music.
“I can swim.” He said he could swim.
Present Continuous “I’m reading a book.”Past Continuous She said she was reading a book.
“We aren’t watching TV.”They told us they were not watching TV.
Present Perfect “I’ve passed all my exams.”Past Perfect Jack said he had passed all his exams.
“I’ve never been to Rome.”Mary said she had never been to Rome.
Present Perfect Continuous “I’ve been waiting for you for half an hour.”Past Perfect Continuous He told me he had been waiting for me for half an hour.
Past Simple (остается в Past Simple или преобразовывается в Past Perfect.) “I was born in Rome.”Past Perfect She mentioned she had been born in Rome.
“I went to the cinema.”He explained he had gone to the cinema.
“We worked.”They told us they had worked.
“We didn’t know that.”They claimed they hadn’t known that.
Past Continuous “I was sleeping at 5 o’clock.”Past Perfect Continuous He said he had been sleeping at 5 o’clock.
We were having dinner.”They told me they had been having dinner.
Future Simple “I will help you.”Future Simple in the Past (will→would) He told me he would help me.
“I won’t forget.”She said she wouldn’t forget.
Future Continuous “I’ll be waiting for you.”Future Continuous in the Past She said she would be waiting for us.
Future Perfect “I’ll have finished that then.”Future Perfect in the Past He promised he would have finished it then.

Say или tell

Say или tell. Если в косвенной речи вы указываете кому было рассказано, нужно использовать tell, например: Tom told me (that) he didn't like Brian. (not 'Tom said me…') С использованием say это предложение будет выглядеть так: Tom said (that) he didn't like Brian. (not 'Tom told (that) he…')

for orders and request

Косвенная речь в приказах и просьбах (for orders and request). При передаче команды, просьбы или приказа в косвенной речи в английском языке используется инфинитив глагола с частицей "to” – "to do”, "to stand”, "to read” и т.д.

direct'Don't shout', I said to Jim.
reportedI told Jim not to shout.
direct'Can you open the door for me, Tom?', Ann asked.
reportedAnn asked Tom to open the door for her.

Главное предложение в косвенной речи может вводиться с помощью глагола ask, если это просьба или tell, если это приказ. И чтобы не повторять все время "he told” или "she asked”, используйте и другие слова:

Косвенная речь образуется по правилу: +that-clause

  • to agree (соглашаться): He agreed that she was very kind.
  • to inform (информировать): He informed me that my request was being reviewed.
  • to claim (подтверждать): He claimed that he had seen the accident.
  • to complain (жаловаться)
  • to deny (отрицать)
  • to exclaim (восклицать)
  • to explain (объяснять)
  • to promise (обещать): He promised that he wouldn't be late.
  • to suggest (предложить)

по правилу: +to-inf

  • to demand (требовать): "Tell me the truth." - "Скажи мне правду." - He demanded to be told the truth.
  • to offer (предложить): He offered to drive me home.

по правилу: somebody+to-inf

  • to warn (предупреждать): He wanted me to be more polite.
  • to advise (советовать)
directreported
He said to me: "Ring me up tomorrow."He asked (suggest) to ring me up the next day.

Перевод вопросительных предложений из прямой речи в косвенную

При переводе вопросов из прямой речи в косвенную у вас должно получиться сложносочинённое предложение, где слова автора будут главной частью, а косвенная речь — придаточной. То, как будет выглядеть ваше новое предложение в косвенной речи, зависит от того, с какого слова начинался вопрос в прямой речи.

Вопросительные слова.

Если прямая речь начиналась со слов what, where, when, who, which, whose, why, how many, how long и т.п., то в косвенной речи убирается вопросительный знак и меняется порядок слов в предложении. Сказуемое ставится после подлежащего, т.е. новое предложение становится, по сути, повествовательным:

directHe asked, "Where is my book?"
reportedHe asked me where his book was.
directNadia asked Annie, "What is he look like?"
reportedNadia asked Annie what he was look like.
directWe asked, "Who did this?"
reportedWe asked who had done that.
directShe asked, "How will you pay?"
reportedShe asked me how I would pay.

Вспомогательные и модальные глаголы

Если же оригинальное предложение с прямой речью начиналось с глагола to have, to be, can или may, то после слов автора ставится союз "if" или "whether", который в данном случае переводится как "ли", и ни в коем случае не как "если":

We asked, "May we expect our payment tomorrow?"
We asked if (whether) we might expect our payment the next day.
He asked, "Have you been there?"
He asked if I had been there.
She asked, "Are you all right?"
She asked me whether I was all right.

Обратите внимание, что после этого "if" (которое переводится как "ли") можно использовать будущее время, а вот после "if", которое переводится как "если" — нельзя:

Let's ask him if he knows about it — Давай спросим, знает ли он об этом.
Let's ask him if he knows about it — Давай спросим его, если он об этом знает.

Что же касается ответов в косвенной речи, то вместо слов "yes" и "no" в них используется либо положительная, либо отрицательная форма смыслового глагола:

We asked him, "Are you okay?"
He answered, "Yes, I am / No, I'm not".
We asked him whether he was okay.
He answered he was / wasn't.
She asked, "Can you help?"
I answered, "Yes, I can / No, I can't"
She asked me whether I could help.
I answered I could / couldn't.
He asked, "Do you know me?
They answered, "Yes, we do / No, we don't".
He asked whether they knew him.
They answered they did / didn't.



reported_speech.txt · Последние изменения: 2015/12/27 12:01 (внешнее изменение)